Howell – Surname Saturday

By Don Taylor

Origin

According to the Ancestry.Com, there are two main sources for the Howell surname. The first one is Welsh, coming from the Welsh personal name “Hywel” meaning ‘eminent.’ The second one is that Howell is an English habitational name coming from an Old English ‘hugol’ meaning ‘mound’ or ‘hillock.’ In particular, it has come to be a habitational name from Howell, Linconshire.[i]

Forebears indicates that it probably derives from an old Welsh word, hoew meaning ‘alert’ or ‘sprightly.’[ii]  The most famous historical bearer of this name was a 10th century Welsh prince, Howell Da.

I have not been successful in determining an immigrant ancestor in the Howell line to confirm the likely origin of this line, however, family oral history indicated they are of Welsh descent.

Geographical

The United States has the most incidents of the Howell surname. There are over 123,000 incidences of the surname in the United States, and only 172,000 worldwide or to say it another way, about 72% of the individuals named Howell live in the United States. The highest frequency of Howell’s in any country is Jamaica, with 1 in 989 having the Howell surname.

The 1920 Census indicates that the greatest number of Howells lived in New York. Likewise the largest number Howells lived in New York during the 1880 and 1840 censuses.[iii]

Howell Ancestors

Peter M. Howell

My wife’s Howell ancestors were in Virginia in the late 1700s. In the mid-1800s they located to North Carolina and in the mid-1900s her branch moved to Maine.

My wife’s earliest known Howell ancestor is probably James Howell. I’m not confident that he was Peter M Howell’s father, but he was in the right place at the right time and died about 1817 when Peter M Howell’s father died. If correct, James Howell would be my wife’s third great-grandfather.

Peter M. Howell is my wife’s 2nd great-grandfather.  He was born in Buckingham County, Virginia.  He married in Cumberland County, Virginia, and died in North Carolina. He was an itinerate preacher. He published a book, The Life and Travels of Peter Howell, in the 1840s that chronicled his life. The book had an illustration of Peter Howell, which is the earliest image that I have of any ancestor.

Peter Fletcher Howell

Peter Fletcher Howell is my wife’s great-grandfather. He was born in Buckingham County, Virginia, but lived most of his life in Halifax County, North Carolina. He was a civil war veteran (CSA). He fought at “The Crater” and many other battles.

James Dallis Howell was my wife’s grandfather. He was born in Halifax County, North Carolina. He too was a preacher and lived most of his life in North Carolina, although he died in Maryland.

My wife’s father, Clarence Fletcher “Pete” Howell, was also born and raised in North Carolina. He attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and became an engineer. He located to Washington, DC in 1939 and lived there until the 1950s. In the 1960s he moved to Maine where he started several businesses that continue to this day. Pete passed in 1999.

DNA

James Dallas Howell

In hopes of a breakthrough in the Howell ancestor research, Jerome Howell has taken a Y-DNA test. His nearest Y-DNA matches are surnamed “Howle,” but no link between the families has been discovered. It appears that the common ancestor between them is more than five generations ago and, apparently, before a Howell/Howle surname split. The Howle line ancestors were in South Carolina in the 1780s while the Howell line ancestors were in Virginia at that time.

Known relatives.

My records have 138 direct-line descendants of James Howell identified over eight generations. This is about 5% of my Howell-Darling research.


Endnotes

[i] Ancestry.Com – Howell Family History – Source: Dictionary of American Family Names ©2013, Oxford University Press. See: https://www.ancestry.com/name-origin?surname=Howell

[ii] Forebears – Howell surname and meaning – Source: Surnames of the United Kingdom (1912) by Henry Harrison – See: http://forebears.io/surnames/howell

[iii] Ancestry.Com – Howell Family History – Source: Dictionary of American Family Names ©2013, Oxford University Press. See: https://www.ancestry.com/name-origin?surname=Howell


J. D. Howell – Beulaville Minister 1917 & 1918

Howell-Darling Research
Howell Line

“Pete” Howell was born in Limestone Township, Duplin County, North Carolina on 10 Oct 1918. At the time of his birth, we know that his father, James Dallas (J.D.) Howell was a minister in Beulaville. (Beulaville is a town within Limestone township.)  I knew that his father’s tenure at the Baptist Church was short, but I never knew how long it was for sure. We know that Pete’s next older brother Frank Armstrong Howell was born in 1916 in Bladen County, NC, and his sister, Mary Elizabeth was born in 1925 in Onslow County, North Carolina. So, J.D.’s time in Beulaville must have been less than 9 years.

October 9 and 10, 1917

The Minutes of the Annual Sessions of the Eastern Baptist Association provide the answer and, luckily, it is available through Archives.Org[i]. According to the Minutes,

  • In 1916, J. G. Bostic was the pastor at Beulaville.
  • In 1917, J. D. Howell was the pastor at Beulaville.
  • In 1918, J. D. Howell was the pastor at Beulaville.
  • In 1919, Geo. W. White was the pastor at Beulaville.

Beulaville was a self-sustaining congregation. Brother Howell also preached at “Cedar Fork, Hallsville, Springfield, Sharon, and some other stations at school houses.”[ii] During 1916-1917, his church gained 6 individuals by baptism and lost four, three by letter and 1 by death.  Membership was 118, 65 men and 53 women.

James Dallas Howell

James Dallas Howell attended the Seventy-Fourth Annual Session of the Eastern Association, held with the Baptist Church at Piney Grove, Duplin County, N. C. on October 9 and 10, 1917

He is mentioned on several pages of the minutes of the proceedings.

During that first year at the Annual Session, J. D. Howell addressed the Association regarding the Layman’s Movement, the temperance movement and the Report on the Biblical Recorder.[iii] He spoke to the assembly regarding “Time for your best.”[iv]

Church gained 6 individuals by Baptism and lost four, three by letter and 1 by death.  Membership was 118, 65 men and 53 women.

October 29, 1918

J.D. Howell attended the Annual Session a second time in 1918. He had been very busy working on the Laymen’s Movement Committee.[v]  Brother Howell also worked for the Executive Committee for the year 1917-1918. He resigned from that position in 1918[vi]

As Laymen’s Movement Committee Chair, he reported on the Laymen’s Movement.

REPORT ON LAYMEN’S MOVEMENT.

The day has been when the idea generally prevailed that the work of the Sunday Schools and churches was only appropriate for and should be left in the hands of women and children. That was the once prevalent idea with regards Kingdom building for the Master. We are mighty glad to say that that day has passed in many sections. Indeed we are fast coming to realize that Sunday Schools and church work – the work of Kingdom building – is the work of our clear-headed, progressive thinking business men. It is a man-sized job, for the best we have in our midst.
The Laymen’s Movement has possibly done as much or more to bring about that change as any other agency. They have done a great work, but their task is not yet finished. In some places they have scarcely touched the hem of the garment. There is a great deal yet to be done in securing the progressive co-operation of our leading business men, with or without the pastor, for the doing of several things, viz.:

  1. Taking an annual inventory of your assets in the individual churches to see what you have to do business on that year for the Lord, make an every-member canvass.
  2. Instituting systematic giving to all the needs of the Kingdom, (if they are farmers, prepare in Fall so they can give all the year).
  3. Learning for ourselves and teaching others that the tithe is a means of contributing to the Master, and enables us to help in saving the world.

Since these things are vitally essential to the proper growth and development of the Kingdom in our Association, and since I am quite sure the people would be more ready to follow the lead of laymen along these lines; therefore, be it resolved,

That the Association ask the Executive Committee to put on foot as early in this Associational year as practicable a campaign of that nature over the whole Association, utilizing the best material possible among the laymen, both in and outside the Association to successfully carry out this plan.

D. HOWELL.[vii]

During his 1918 tenure, his Beulaville church report showed the church gained seven members by letter, and lost two by exclusion and 1 by death finishing the year with 123 members.  The Pastor’s salary was $300/year.


Endnotes:

[i] The Minutes of the Annual Sessions of the Eastern Baptist Association 1911-1920 via Wake Forest University, The Z. Smith Reynolds Library – Digitized and available online through Archive.Org.  https://archive.org/details/minutesofannuals1120east.
[ii] Ibid. October 9 and 10, 1917 – Page 7.
[iii] Ibid. October 9 and 10, 1917 – Page 9.
[iv] Ibid. October 9 and 10, 1917 – Page 13.
[v] Ibid. October 29, 1918, Page 7.
[vi] Ibid. October 29, 1918 , Page 10.
[vii] Ibid. October 29, 1918 – Page 13.

Amanuensis the Easy Way

Amanuensis Monday
By Don Taylor

Photo of Don Taylor with cat Nasi.A few years ago, I wrote a post about my wife’s 4th great-grandfather, Lewis Bryan (1755-1830) and that he had purchased his land from Robert Bryan. That post received several comments. One included a clue from Gloria Knight who said, “I have found where a “Patent” was issued on 10 Dec 1760 to a Robert Bryan. Source: Halifax County N.C. Land Grants – Secretary of State – Land Grants Record Books 1693-1960. Grant # was 82; File # 14. 520 acres on Conotoe Creek.”

I had meant to find that reference and incorporate it into my information regarding Robert Bryan. I just hadn’t gotten around to it. Her comment/clue reminded me of three significant resources matters.

Networking

So many of us want to be self-sufficient we tend to forget many researchers have been there before and we can and should build upon their work. For example, Gloria’s clue provided enough information that I could easily, and quickly build upon her work. Not just accept what she said but use it as a hint as a beginning point. I know that professional genealogists want every source to be quoted in a fashion identified in Evidence Explained. Sure, that is THE standard for citing sources.  However, rather than getting all twisted around the citation standards, I am most interested in having enough information about the source that I can find it for myself. In this case, a Google search for Gloria’s clue, “Halifax County N.C. Land Grants ” brought me immediately to North Carolina Land Grant Images and Data. Seeing Search Query on the page, I searched for Name: “Bryan” and County: Halifax. Six entries were returned, one the 520 Acres of Robert Bryan.  The page also had a link to an image in Book 14, Pages 114-115. There it was, an image of the original patent book. The key to me is Gloria had provided enough information regarding her source that I was able to find the source in less than a minute myself. To me that is the ultimate reason for citations and building upon or confirming her research is the ultimate purpose of networking.

Wikipedia

I knew from previous research with this family line that Martin County was previously Halifax County.  There are many sites to learn that kind of information. However, I have found that Wikipedia is possibly the best and easiest way to confirm such information. On Wikipedia, just search <NAME> County, <STATE> and you get the appropriate wiki page.  In this case. I entered “Martin County, North Carolina” In the History section of the page returned said,

The county was formed in 1774 from the southeastern part of Halifax County and the western part of Tyrrell County.

I could have just as easily gone to the Halifax County, North Carolina page and learned that,

In 1774 the southeastern part of Halifax County was combined with part of Tyrrell County to form Martin County.

I think every county page on Wikipedia has a “History” section. I find that the County entries in Wikipedia to be a great asset. Besides quick history, there is a Communities section which shows the cities, towns, unincorporated communities, and townships within the county. Great information to have handy when reviewing Census and other records. I can be a real help in understanding that an incorporated community in your genealogy is near town that may have been their post office which may have been in a township.  So, when you see the names change in different documents, you can understand that your ancestors may have been in the same place even though multiple names were used.

Google

Finally, I wanted to transcribe the patent information from the document. I’ll admit, I don’t like transcribing 18th century handwriting very much. I mean, I can do it, I just don’t like doing it. In this case, I could easily read the document started out “Robert Bryan Five hundred and twenty acres.” A Google search of those exact words led to one result. A quick review of the result showed it was a transcript of the document I wanted to transcribe. Dated the 10th day of December 1760.  Then, rather than transcribe the original text, all I needed to do is to read the transcription and see if I agreed with the transcription.  Much faster – much easier. Then, I added the transcript to my source documents identifying it:

Transcription by <Unknown>  found on site, BMGEN.COM
“Genealogy data relating to the Brian and Mitchell families.”

So, I have my copy of the original image, and I have my source for that image documented. I also have a transcription of the information, confirmed and reviewed by me. I am good with that and can move on to the next project.

Transcription

Transcription by <Unknown> found on site, BMGEN.COM

ROBERT BRYAN five hundred and twenty acres of land in Halifax County.

Beginning at a Pine, his corner on Conneto Swamp running thence up said swamp to a Maple at the mouth of Wild Cat Branch; then up said branch to a Poplar in said branch; then W 62 poles to a Red Oak; then S 160 poles to a Pine; then W 40 poles to two Sweet Gums in a branch; then S 280 poles to a Pine; then W 88 poles to a pine in MOSES HORN’s line; then along his line S 23 E 174 poles to a White Oak, his corner on Conneto Creek; then down said creek to a Pine, JOHN HORN’s corner on said creek; then along his line N 17 E 142 poles to a Pine, his corner in said BRYAN’s line; then along his line W 16 poles to a Pine, his corner; then along his line N 270 poles to a Pine, his corner on a branch; then down the branch, his line, to the first station.

Dated 10th day of December, 1760

Conclusion

  1. Pay attention to hints from anywhere – check them out for yourself.
  2. The North Carolina Land Grant site is an awesome resource. Be sure to include it in your resources.
  3. Don’t forget Wikipedia County searches can be helpful.
  4. Check Google (or Bing or Yahoo) to see if the words you want transcribed  have already been transcribed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vinson/Vincent line of Halifax, NN

Researching the Vinson/Vincent line of Halifax, North Carolina

Howell-Darling-2017 Research
Howell/Vinson/Vincent Line
By Don Taylor

Photo of Don Taylor with cat Nasi.

Getting to know ancestors that lived before 1850 is always difficult. The census records before 1880 do not include relationships and census records before 1850 only include the name of the head of the household. Because of that, it is really difficult to know all the names and to learn all the relationships. It isn’t a wall, but certainly researching families before 1850 can feel like a closed road.  For me, my wife’s third great-grandfather, Burkett Vinson is such a person.  He shows up once in the 1840 Census with a small household of five individuals. After a frustrating time trying to find more about him, I decided to do a name/location study regarding his surname in his location. Such a study can help associate people into relationships and can help reduce errors.

Using Family Search, I searched the 1850 Census for surname Vinson in Halifax, North Carolina. The system returned six results from two families. Both were new to my research:

  • Littleberry Vinson, Age 34, his apparent wife, an apparent daughter, Laura, and an apparent son Robert.[i]
  • Robert Vinson, Age 30, and his apparent wife, Martha.[ii]

Next, I enter the information into my software, (I currently use Family Tree Maker 3.1.) documenting my sources very carefully.

Besides the obvious family units I’ve discovered, it was also interesting to learn many of the little nuances of the individual’s lives. For example, Littleberry Vinson distinguished himself in testing at Brinkleyville Academy in 1831[iii]. He became a lawyer. Then, in 1840, he toasted vice presidential candidate John Tyler for devotion to Republican principals and support of the Constitution. That article’s use of “Esqr.” confirms that Littleberry was a lawyer. His toast suggests his political affiliation indicating that Littleberry Vinson was likely a Whig.[iv] (Harrison and Tyler ran on a Whig party ticket. Also, today’s Republican Party wasn’t established until 1854.)

Unfortunately, my experience researching this family is that Vincent and Vinson were used interchangeably depending upon the ear of the person hearing the name. Sadly, a search for “Vincent” yielded another 13 results and three new previously unknown households.

  • John Vincent, Age 32, with his apparent wife, Leonora, and three daughters, Virginia, Elizabeth, and Susan. Also in the household is a 30-year-ood Eliza Beasley. (These were my wife’s ancestor family. John is my wife’s 2nd great-grandfather and Susan is her great-grandmother.) [v]
  • Elizabeth Vincent, Age 64 with a 25-year-old Nancy Vincent in the household.  (This would be the wife and daughter of the deceased Burkett Vinson.)[vi]

New Households:

  • Michael Vincent, age 27, his apparent wife and an apparent son, Walter.[vii]
  • James Vincent, Age 19 & John Vincent, Age 16[viii]
  • Phil Vincent in the household of James Snow.[ix]

Of course, all the “apparent” relationships above are guesses. I’ll add that, because of the ages, I’ll guess that James and John (ages 19 & 16) were brothers.

Next, I need to expand upon these Vincent families and understand how they fit into the larger picture.


Endnotes

[i] 1850 Census (FS), 1850 Census – Littleberry Vinson – Halifax, North Carolina. See: 1850 Census – Lettleberry Vinson – Halifax, North Carolina.pdf. https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M4BC-343.

[ii] 1850 Census (FS), 1850 Census – Robert Vinson – Halifax, North Carolina. https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M4BC-XH3.

[iii] Roanoke Advocate (Halifax, NC) · 1831-11-24 · Page 2 – Various Vinsons achieve honors (Newspapers.com)

[iv] Roanoke Advocate and States Rights Banner  ((Halifax, NC), ), Newspapers.Com, 1840-07-29 · Page 4 – Volunteer Toasts – Littleberry Vinson

[v] 1850 Census (FS), 1850 Census – John Vincent – Halifax, North Carolina. https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M4BC-QTG.

[vi] 1850 Census (FS), 1850 Census – Elizabeth Vincent – Halifax, North Carolina. https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M4BC-QTB.

[vii] 1850 Census (FS), 1850 Census – Michael Vincent – Halifax, North Carolina. https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M4BH-BDY.

[viii] 1850 Census (FS), 1850 Census – James Vincent – Halifax, North Carolina. https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M4BC-QZ7.

[ix] 1850 Census (FS), 1850 Census – Phil Vincent – Halifax, North Carolina. https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M4BC-NTY.

Ancestor Biography – Elizabeth Blackwell Roberts (1796-1867)

By Don Taylor

Photo of Don Taylor with cat Nasi.During my recent “We’re Relate” Famous Friday investigation, I noted that my relationships to Luke Bryan and to Carrie Fisher were both based upon David Blackwell, supposedly the father of my 3rd great-grandmother Elizabeth Blackwell. I had originally intended for her to be #6 in my continuing Roberts, but determining if I might be related to Carrie Fisher enticed me to jump Elizabeth ahead to next to research.

Roberts/Barnes Research – Generation 6: Ancestor #33

List of Grandparents

  • Grandfather:                          Bert Allen Roberts
  • 1st Great-grandfather:          Hugh Ellis Roberts
  • 2nd Great-grandfather:         Asa Ellis Roberts
  • 3rd Great-grandmother:Elizabeth Blackwell
  • 4th Great-grandfather:          David Blackwell

Elizabeth Blackwell Roberts (1796-1867)

Birth

Elizabeth Blackwell was born on 10 September 1796[i] in Surry County, North Carolina[ii]. She was possibly the 11th of 17 children of David Blackwell. An incredible amount of work is still needed to confirm and validate all her siblings.

Childhood

Elizabeth’s father was a revolutionary war veteran. Her mother died while Elizabeth was still young, probably before she was 10-years-old.

Marriage

Elizabeth married John Calvin Roberts on 3 March 1816 in Roane county, Tennessee.[iii]

1820 Census

Family Search Wiki indicates that the 1820 Census for Roane County, TN has been lost.[iv]  The Wiki suggests an alternate source in Mary Barnett Curtis, Early East Tennessee Tax Lists…. I have requested a copy through Interlibrary Loan.

1830 Census

The 1830 Census finds the John Roberts household of Roane County, Tennessee with the following household:[v]

1 Male 30 to 39:              [John Calvin Roberts – Age 35]

1 Female 30 thru 39:     [Elizabeth (Blackwell) Roberts – Age 33]

3 Males 10 thru 14:        [Calvin, Elias, & David – Ages 10, 11, & 13 respectively]

2 Males 5 thru 9:            [Elijah & George – Ages 8 & 6 respectively]

1 Female 5 thru 9:          [Elizabeth – Age 6]

2 Males under 5:                        [Frances, Phillip, & John – Ages 4, 2, & 1 respectively]

Only two children were reported as being under 5. Francis married and was living during the war. Both Phillip and John are believed to have died before 1848. One of them must have died before the 1830 Census.

1940 Census

The 1840 Census finds the John Roberts Family in Roane County, Tennessee with the following: [vi]

1 Males – 40 thru 49:     [John Calvin Roberts – Age 45]

2 Males – 20 thru 29:     [David, Elias, & Calvin – Ages 20, 21, & 23 respectively.]*

2 Males – 15 thru 19:     [George and Elijah – Ages 16 & 18]

1 Male   – 10 thru 14:     [Phillip, John & Francis, Ages 11, 12, & 14 respectively]**

1 Male  – 5 thru 9:       [Asa & Hugh – Ages 5 & 6 respectively]***
3 Males – Under 5:     [Robert and Brazzel – Ages 1 & 3 respectively]***

*Both Calvin and David are believed to have died before 1848. One of them, may have died before 1840. Alternately, one of them may have established their own home by 1840. Further research is needed to determine which two remained in this household.

** This time only one male is reported as age 10 thru 14. Francis married and was living during the war (1860s). Both Phillip and John are believed to have died before 1848. For this census record to be accurate, both of them must have died before the 1840 Census.

*** Two males between 5 and 9 were reported and one male child under 5 was missing.  I believe that five-year-old Asa was reported in error.

1 Female – 40 thru 49:   [Elizabeth – Age 44]

1 Female – 15 thru 19:   [Elizabeth – Age 17

1 Female – 5 thru 9:        [Amanda – Age 9]

1850 Census

The 1850 Census names the individuals within the household but does not provide relationships. It indicates that the first ten children had either died or left home. The remaining six children are identified in the census. The John Roberts Household consisted of:[vii]

  • John Roberts                           M         55        Tennessee
  • Elizabeth Roberts                   F          53        North Carolina
  • Hughy Roberts                        M         17        Tennessee
  • Acy Roberts                             M         15        Tennessee
  • Robert S Roberts                    M         13        Tennessee
  • Bazel Roberts                          M         11        Tennessee
  • Rebecca Roberts                     F          10        Tennessee
  • William Roberts                      M         9          Tennessee

Also in the household was an Elizabeth Nelson, age 23.  Her relationship is unknown at this time. John and Elizabeth’s daughter named Elizabeth (born 1823) would have been 26 years old. I do not believe that Elizabeth Nelson is their daughter returned home with a new surname, rather, I believe they were two separate individuals.

1860 Census

The 1860 Census finds the Roberts family still in Roane County, Tennessee. The receive their mail through the Kingston post office.

The only one of the children of John and Elizabeth is their 18-year-old daughter Rebecca.[viii]

Death

Elizabeth Blackwell Roberts died on 5 July 1867 in Roane County, Tennessee. [ix], [x]  It does not appear that she has a marker.

Conclusion

The good news is that, at least in my mind, Elizabeth Blackwell’s parents were David and Sarah (Harris) Blackwell provided one more step along the way towards seeing those “We’re Related” relationships are possibly real. The bad news is that several researchers that I trust indicate that David Blackwell’s father was William Blackwell, Not Samuel Blackwell as the Luke Bryan “We’re Related” lineage suggests. Likewise, “We’re Related” suggests that David Blackwell’s mother was Elizabeth Steptoe; however, most other researchers suggest that David Blackwell’s mother was Mary Marshall.  So, at this point I don’t believe either Luke Bryan or Carrie Fisher are related through the line that “We’re Related” suggests.  I still need to confirm the parents of David Blackwell myself, but the priority of that research has dropped back to normal.   

Further Actions / Follow-up

  1. Review: Mary Barnett Curtis, Early East Tennessee Tax Lists: a compiled list of residents of the area covered in 22 east Tennessee counties for which there is (sic) no census records prior to 1830 (Fort Worth, Texas: Arrow Printing, 1964) [FHL 976.8 R4c] for Roberts.  (I have requested this book through the Inter-Library Loan system.)
  2. Review: Snyder E. Roberts; Roberts families of Roane County, Tennessee, 1794-1969, 1968 for Roberts Family. WorldCat: http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/114828. (I have requested this book through the Inter-Library Loan system.)
  3. Review: Chris H. Bailey, “Descendants of David Blackwell of Surry County, North Carolina and Roane County, Tennessee,” particularly his footnotes which contain many of his sources.

————- Disclaimer ————-


Endnotes

[i] Find a Grave, Find a Grave, No Marker – Elizabeth Blackwell Roberts – Memorial #147852443. Accessed 13 Feb 2017. https://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=147852443.

[ii] Gregory Vaut, Ancestors of Alexandra Catlin Vaut, Files (Personal), Elizabeth Blackwell #78189. Accessed 13 Feb 2017. http://www.acvancestors.com/g2/p2607.htm#i78189.

[iii] Tennessee, Compiled Marriages, 1784-1825, Ancestry.Com, No Image – John Roberts & Elizabeth Blackwell – Marriage Date: 3 March 1816. Accessed 13 Feb 2017. http://search.ancestry.com/search/collections/eamtn/14655/printer-friendly?ssrc=pt&tid=28584065&pid=12093609656&usePUB=true.

[iv] Family Search Wiki – Roane County, Tennessee Genealogy https://familysearch.org/wiki/en/Roane_County,_Tennessee_Genealogy

[v] 1830 Census (A) (NARA), Ancestry.Com, 1830 Census – John Roberts – Roane, Tennesee (A). 1830; Census Place: Roane, Tennessee; Series: M19; Roll: 180; Page: 55; Family History Library Film: 0024538.

[vi] 1840 Census (A) (NARA), Ancestry.Com, 1840 Census – John Roberts – Roane, Tennessee (A). 1840; Census Place: Roane, Tennessee; Roll: 535; Page: 70; Image: 1022; Family History Library Film: 0024549.

[vii] 1850 Census (FS), Family Search, John Roberts – Roane, Tennessee – House Number 1415. Accessed:  6 August 2016.

[viii] 1860 Census (A) (NARA), Ancestry.Com, 1860 Census – John Roberts – 14th District, Roane, TN – Post Office Kingston.

[ix] Find a Grave, Find a Grave, (No Marker) – Elizabeth Blackwell Roberts – Memorial #147852443. Accessed 13 Feb 2017. https://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=147852443.

[x] Gregory Vaut, Ancestors of Alexandra Catlin Vaut, Files (Personal), Elizabeth Blackwell #78189. Accessed 13 Feb 2017. http://www.acvancestors.com/g2/p2607.htm#i78189.