Follow the “X”

By Don Taylor

Image by Caroline Davis2010 (CC BY 2.0)

Twenty-Two of our chromosomes are recombinant in nature, which means you receive 50% of your mother’s DNA and 50% of your father’s DNA.  The 23rd chromosome, the X-Y or X-X, is quite different. If you are a male, you received a “Y” chromosome from your father and you received an “X” chromosome from your mother. That X is a recombinant, in that it consists of 50% of your mother’s DNA. However, if you are a female, you received 50% from your mother as recombinant from her, but you also received your other X chromosome as a duplicate from your father. The effect of that is that the amount of DNA received from an ancestor through your X chromosome is higher if the ancestor path switches gender every generation. For example, my mother received 50% from her mother and 50% from her father. Her father received 100% of his X DNA from his mother (recombinant).

Blaine Bettinger (The Genetic Genealogist) has an excellent article, “More X-Chromosome Charts,” which provides charts showing both the Ahnentafel numbers and the percentage of X-DNA you received from which ancestors. The effect of this switching back and forth is that a male receives 12.5% of his mother’s father’s mother’s father’s mother’s father’s mother instead of the 0.78% that he received from that ancestor (a 5th great-grandmother) in the other 22 chromosomes.

I call that line a “zig-zag” line because it shifts gender every generation can provide insight into genetic connections that can really help in understanding matches and where you and that person may have a common ancestor.

The following are my “zig-zag” ancestors:

Ahnentafel #PersonSexExpected %
of X-DNA
3My motherF100
6Richard Earl Brown (1903-1990)M50
13Mary Elizabeth Manning (1878-1983)F50
26John William Manning (1846-1888)M25
53Minerva Ann Tolliver (1821-1902)F25
106Tulion Tolliver (unknown dates)M12.5
213Unknown 5th great-grandmotherF12.5

 In any generation you follow a woman’s mother, the expected % of X-DNA is cut in half. So my mother received 50% of her X-DNA from her mother. I have 50% of my X-DNA from my mother’s mother, so a similar “zig-zag” chart for my mother would be:

Ahnentafel #PersonSexExpected %
of X-DNA
3My motherF100
7Madonna Mae Montran (1893-1976)F50
14John Montran (c.1867-c.1897)M25
29Unknown 2nd great-grandmotherM25

Because my great-grandfather, John Montran’s life is such a mystery and because his parents are a complete mystery to me, discovering ancestors with whom I share X-DNA with may provide key insight into potential candidates for John.

If you share any of the above ancestors with me, I’d love to hear from you and try compare our matches in order to learn of our common ancestor. 

DNA Testing and Results Companies

23 and Me requires you to compare DNA in their browser and then manually determine if there is a match on the X-Chromosome. You can download your raw DNA data and import it into several other services. (Kits available for $69 until 23 Nov 2018)

AncestryDNA doesn’t provide information about X-DNA Matches nor does it provide for a chromosome browser. You can, however, download your raw DNA data and import it into FamilyTree DNA and GEDMatch. (Kits are available for $59 until 21 Nov 2018)

FamilyTree DNA shows you that an individual has an X-Match with you, even if that match is extremely low, even down to 1cM if they match otherwise at higher levels. You can test with FamilyTree DNA, with “Family Finder.” Alternately, you can also upload raw DNA results from Ancestry, 23andMe, MyHeritage and the National Genographic Project 2.0. (Kits are $79.00)

GEDMatch allows you to select whether a match is based on autosomal or X. By selecting X, you can see only those matches with whom you share X-DNA. If you look at the individual’s kit number and it begins with “A” they kit was imported from Ancestry. GEDMatch does no testing but allows you to upload your raw DNA data from various services including Ancestry, FTDNA, WeGene, MyHeritage and others. GEDMatch does no testing,

MyHeritageDNA does not show you your X-Matches (at least not with uploaded kit results).

LivingDNA does not show you any match data.

Looking solely at X-Chromosome match capability,  FamilyTree DNA and GEDMatch are the best, with 23 and Me following closely behind. AncestryDNA, Living DNA, and MyHeritageDNA do not support X-Chromosome match analysis. Look closely at your tree and your X-Chromosome, you may find that a new clue to help find that elusive ancestor.

————–  Disclaimer  ————–

Halloween 2018

Caith “My Halloween Kitty”

Halloween or Samhain is said to be the day where the boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead became blurred. As such, it is an important time to remember those who have passed. Although I try to remember all my ancestors who have passed, this Samhain I want to remember three people who were not ancestors but had a profound effect on my life. Their passing touched me deeply.

First, is my first close friend to die. Steve Plowman was a close friend while I lived in North Minneapolis. He lived about a block away – down the hill to the corner then left a half a block to his house on 24th that adjoined the alleyway between Aldrich and Bryant avenues. On Tuesday, November 24th, 1964, Steve and a mutual friend, Gary Dorf, were crossing Lyndale Avenue in North Minneapolis while a bus was stopped. Gary stopped walking while in front of the bus,  but Steve ran out trying to beat a car that was coming. Steve was hit by the car and died before getting to the hospital. He was the first close friend I had to die, and one of only a few I’ve known that have died due to a car accident. Steve was only 15 when he died. To this day, I am ultra-careful when walking past a bus into traffic and cringe when I see someone step past a bus without using super-great caution.

Sadly, I was in Minnesota a few weeks ago and at the Fort Snelling National Cemetery, where Steve is buried, and didn’t realize he was there. So, visiting his grave will be on my list of things to do during my next visit to Minnesota.

Marker – Alvina B Kirks – photo by Don Taylor

Next, is my best friend’s mother, Alvina Kirks. She was a really nice woman. Hers was the first, and only, funeral where I was a pallbearer. It was difficult for me to say anything that would help my friend or the rest of his family. I recall making a conscious decision to do my absolute best to fulfill the honor my friend and his father bestowed upon me asking that I be a pallbearer, at only 16-years of age. Alvina was only 47 when she passed. From her, I learned that even when cancer is taking your life, you can be strong and dignified during the process. She was. I was able to visit her burial site at Fort Snelling National Cemetery when I was last in Minnesota. She is buried next to her husband, Charles N. Kirks.

Gravesite: Mary E. (Raidt) Taylor – Photo by Don Taylor

Finally, is my first wife, Mary. She was an exceptionally good woman and mother to my first child. She was very tolerant and in so many ways amazing. I was married to her for over ten years and don’t rue a day of it. We were so young when we were married and tried very hard to make it work. But the separations of Navy life took their toll on our relationship. She passed away last spring (June). I was able to visit where her cremains are buried at Saint Mary’s Cemetery in Minneapolis. I was saddened that there wasn’t a stone monument there. Cemetery records indicated where she was buried. She is resting with her grandparents, John & Marie (Hawley) Langford. Although she doesn’t have a stone marker at the cemetery, I did create a virtual monument for her on Find-a-Grave. May her life in heaven be more joyous than she ever imagined.

Ancestor Sketch – FNU Marshall (c. 1816 – c. 1846)

Roberts/Marshall Line

By Don Taylor

The father of Patience Anna (Marshall) Dean Roberts continues to elude me.  I’ve never heard of a wall growing, but the brick wall regarding Patience’s father seems to become more and more solid. I know virtually nothing about him.

Patience was born on 30 Dec 1843, so we can assume his father was alive in March 1843 in order to father Patience.

Patience and her mother are living with Jane’s brother in the 1850 Census. Additionally, a search for anyone with surname Marshall in Jefferson County, Illinois in the 1850 Mortality Schedule, yielded no one with the Marshall surname listed for Jefferson County or the surrounding counties.  This leads me to believe that Patience’s father died before 1 June 1849.

1850 Census showing Thomas Lawson with Jane & Patience Marshall.

Jane (Lawson) Marshall was about 22 years old when she conceived Patience, so, I’m guessing that her husband was at least 18 and probably under 32 when they were married. That suggests a birthdate somewhere between 1810 and 1822.

Even though the 1850 Census indicates that Patience was born in Tennessee, all other records indicate she was born in Illinois. I believe the Tennessee entry is in error. Patience’s mother was born in Tennessee and Jane’s younger brother Thomas was born in Illinois in 1829, suggesting the Lawson’s moved to Illinois before that. Additionally, it appears that Jane’s father is Jacob Lawson and Jacob appears in the 1840 Census as a family head of household. That suggests Jane lived in Illinois prior to meeting and marrying Patience’s father.

With this in mind, I speculate, Patience’s father was:

  • Born: 1810-1822 – Probably Tennessee.
  • Marr: 1842-1843 – Probably Illinois – Probably Jackson County.
  • Died: 1843-1949 – Probably Illinois – Probably Jackson County.

Research Roberts-Marshall 2018 – Ancestor #34

List of Grandparents

Newspapers are often a great source for death information. Chronicling America indicates 3 newspapers have been published in Jefferson County, Illinois. The earliest is the Sentinel beginning in 1856. Likewise, Find-a-Grave is an excellent source for death information and clues; There are no entries for anyone with the surname Marshall before 1864.

I’ve also looked closely at The History of Jefferson County, Illinois by William Henry Perrin (1883) and have found nothing relating to the Marshalls of interest in that book.


Further Actions / Follow-up

  • The 1840 Census indicates no families with the Marshall surname in Jefferson County.
  • The 1850 Census indicates there were only two households containing individuals with the Marshall surname. First, Jane and Patience were living with Jane’s brother. Second, was a family consisting of seven individuals, apparently Gabriel Marshall, age 45 from Tennessee, his wife, Frances, and five (apparent) children. Based upon the birthplaces of his children, it appears they came to Illinois between 1834 and 1838. This is about the time that Patience’s father may have come to Illinois as well. As such, my next effort with the Marshalls is to attempt to find Gabriel Marshall family and see if Gabriel had a brother that would fit as Patience’s father.
  • A visit to the Jefferson County Historical Society may help find additional resources.

Ancestor Sketch – Meredith Mannin (1802-c.1885)

52 Ancestors – Week 2018-39
By Don Taylor

Meredith didn’t follow the typical “go west young man” life of so many of my ancestors. Meredith was born in Virginia about 1802. He went west as a young man to Bath County, Kentucky, where he married.  He then moved west to Missouri. After several years in Missouri, he moved back east to Boone County, Indiana. He returned east again and settled in Carter County, Kentucky. Finally, he appears to have died in Bath County after returning to the place of his youth.

Brown/Roberts Research 2018 – Ancestor #104

List of Grandparents

  1.  Clifford Brown| aka Richard Earl Durand| aka Richard Earl Brown
  2.  Mary Elizabeth Manning(1878-1983)
  3.  John William Manning, (1846-1888)
  4.  Enoch Mannin (1823-1907)
  5.  Meredith Mannin (1802-1870)
  6.  John Bosel Mannin Sr. (1776-1870)
  7.  Samuel Mannin (1756-…)
  8.  Meredith Mannin (1720-c.1751)

Meredith Mannin (1802-c.1885)

Birth

The Mannin family bible clearly indicates that Meredith Mannin was born on 12 June 1802. Sadly, that family bible isn’t a contemporary source record. The bible record is from the Civil War record file of Meredith’s son Zachariah. The record appears to be written by one person at one time. It was clearly written after 1838 and probably not until the 1860s. The 1850 and 1860 Census records indicate he was 48 and 58 years old respectively, suggesting the birth year of 1801. The 1870 and 1880 census records re-establish his birth year as being 1802, consistent with the Bible record.

It is unclear who his parents were. Some sources suggest that his mother, Catherine Barnett, married both John Bosel Mannin and his brother Meredith Mannin. I’ve accepted his father being John Bosel Mannin and know that I need to do much more research in this area.

In any event, I believe his siblings to be:

Charles b. 1796 in Virginia
Martha b. 1798 in Virginia
John b. 1799 in Virginia
Tubal b. 1800 in Virginia
Meredith b. 1802 in Virginia
Samuel b. ca. 1804 in Kentucky
Tarleton b. 1811 in Kentucky
John Bosel b. 1915 in Kentucky
Mary b. 1826 in Kentucky

Childhood

Nothing is known of Meredith’s childhood. Sometime in 1803 or 1804 the family relocated to Kentucky.

Marriage

Meredith and Rachel Fugate’s father signed a marriage bond on 14 February 1825. It is unclear if they married on that date or three days later, on February 17th. See: Marriage of Meredith Mannin & Rachel Fugate. Enoch was born on 3 January 1823, two years before Meredith and Rachel were married. While Rachel was 4-months pregnant with Isaac she and Meredith married.

Meredith and Rachel had 12 children. Their first three children, Enoch, Isaac, and Thomas were born in Kentucky. About 1828, the family moved to Missouri and had three children while in Missouri – Tubill, Reuben, & Katharine. About 1835, the Mannin’s moved 250 miles back towards the east to Boone County, Indiana. There they had four more children, John, Mahala, Sarah, & Elizabeth. Finally, about 1841, the family moved back to Kentucky where their two youngest children, Zachariah & Tarlton, were born.

Adulthood

1830 Census indicates the family is in St Ferdinand, St Louis, Missouri:

3 Males under 5, One presumed to be Isaac, Age 5
                        One presumed to be Thomas Hillry, Age 3
                        One presumed to be Tubill, Age 1
1 male 5 to 10       Presumed to be Enoch, Age 7
1 male 20 to 30.    Meredith Mannin, Age 28.
1 Female 20 to 30 Presumed to Be Rachel Fugate, Age 26.

Map showing Meredith’s land.

In 1837, Meridith Mannin owned 40 acres of land about four miles north of Lebanon, Boone County, Indiana, in Washington Township, the SE ¼ of the NE ¼ of Section 12.

 

1840 Census indicates the family is in Boone County, Indiana:

2 Males 5 to under 10  – Presumed to be John (age 5) and Reuben Calloway, (Age 9)
1 Male 10 to under 15 – Presumed to be Thomas Hillry OR Tubill (Age 13 or 10)[1]
2 Males 15 to under 20 – Presumed to be Enoch (Age 17) and Isaac B. (Age 15)
1 Male 30 to under 40 – Presumed to be Meredith Mannin (Age 38)
3 Females under 5 – Presumed to be Mahala (Age 2), Elizabeth  (Age 1), and Sarah Jane (a newborn)
1 Female 5 to under 10 – Presumed to be Katharine Susan (Age 7)
1 Female 30 to under 40 – Presumed to be Rachel Fugate Mannin (Age 36)

 

The 1850 Census indicates the family is in Carter County, Kentucky

Meradith Mannen – 48 – Farmer 250   VA
Rachel         “       47                                      KY
Tubal          “        20      Laborer                Mo
Reuben       “       17        Laborer                “
Cathrine S   “     15                                       “
John           “        13                                     Ind
Mahala        “      12                                     “
Sarah          “        10                                     “
Zachariah    “       8                                    Ky
Tarlton        “        6                                     “

The 1860 Census indicates the family is in Bath County, Kentucky. Only four of their children are still with them:

Meredith Manning  – 58 Farmer – Born Virginia
Rachel   “             57      Kentucky
Zachah   “            18      Farm Hand – KY
Mahala                21      KY (Apparent Error)
Sarah                   19      KY (Apparent Error)
Tarlton                16      KY

Rachel died on 7 May 1870.

The 1870 Census finds Meredith in Carter County again. Living with him are his daughter Sarah Jane, her husband and their three children. Also, with them are two of Meredith’s grandchildren. One more person, Rodeth Richard, probably Sarah Jane’s sister-in-law, is also living with them.

Merideth Mannin            M      67      Virginia       Farmer
Jane Richardson            F       26      Kentucky     Keeping House
James Richardson         M      26      Kentucky     Farmer
Rachel Richardson         F       7       Kentucky
James Richardson         M      4       Kentucky
William Richardson        M      2       Kentucky
Rodeth Richardson        F       17      Kentucky
Ruben Tapp                  M      15      Kentucky     Farm Laborer
Evaline Tapp                 F       13      Kentucky

The 1880 Census now finds Meredith living in the household of his daughter Sarah Jane, her husband and their six children now in Tanyard, Bath County, Kentucky:

James Richardson Self    M      43      Kentucky, Farmer
Sarah Richardson Wife   F       41      Indiana, Keeping House
Rachal Richardson Dau. F       17      Kentucky
James Richardson Son   M      15      Kentucky, Laborer
William Richardson Son  M      13      Kentucky, Laborer
Meridith RichardsonSon M      8       Kentucky
Charley RichardsonSon  M      6       Kentucky
Melvin Richardson Son  M      2       Kentucky
Merideth Mannon  F-I-L  M      77      Kentucky  (Widowed)

Death & Burial

I have been unsuccessful finding any death or burial record for Meredith.  Several researchers suggest he died after 15 Jul 1885, several others suggest 15 July 1885.

Further Actions / Follow-up



————–  Disclaimer  ————–

Sources

  • 1830 Census (A) (NARA), Com, 1830 Census – Meredith Manning – St Ferdinand. St Louis County, Missouri.
  • 1840 Census (A) (NARA), Com, 1840 – Merradeth [Merediith] Mannon [Mannin] – Boone, Indiana; Roll: 74; Page: 138. Ancestry.com
  • 1850 Census, Com, 1850 Census – Meradith Mannen [Mannin] – District 1, Carter, Kentucky. Online publication – Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.Original data – Seventh Census of the United States, 1850; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M432, 1009 rolls).
  • 1860 Census, Family Search, 1860 – Meredith Manning – Bath, Maine – Page 131.
  • 1870 Census (FS) (NARA), Family Search, 1870 Census – Merideth Mannin – Precinct 3, Carter, Kentucky. “United States Census, 1870,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MX7P-1PB : 12 April 2016), Merideth Mannin, Kentucky, United States; citing p. 1, family 4, NARA microfilm publication M593 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm 545,953.
  • 1880 Census, Family Search, 1880 – James Richardson – Tanyard, Bath, Kentucky. “United States Census, 1880,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MCCM-LQ1 : 12 August 2017), Merideth Mannon in household of James Richardson, Tanyard, Bath, Kentucky, United States; citing enumeration district ED 7, sheet 362D, NARA microfilm publication T9 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 0402; FHL microfilm 1,254,402.
  • Find a Grave, Find a Grave, Thomas Hillry Manning – Memorial 41718613 [No Image]. Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 15 September 2018), memorial page for Thomas Hillry Manning (8 Mar 1827–4 Oct 1924), Find A Grave Memorial no. 41718613, citing Manning Chapel Cemetery, Carter, Carter County, Kentucky, USA ; Maintained by Norm Nelson (contributor 47026217).
  • General Land Office Records (U.S. Department of the Interior), Bureau of Land Management, Merideath [Meredith] Mannin – Document Number 25537 – 40 Acres, Boone County, [Washington Township] Section 12, SE1/4-NW1/4 Kidder County. Accession Nr: IN1380__.228. https://glorecords.blm.gov/details/patent/default_pf.aspx?accession=IN1380__.228&docClass=STA.
  • Kentucky, County Marriages, 1797-1954, Family Search, Meredith Mannon and Rachel Fugate, 14 Feb 1825 – Bond. Bath, Kentucky, United States, Madison County Courthouse, Richmond; FHL microfilm 273,003. https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:V5ZH-L12.
  • Mannin Family Bible, Copy, Mannin Family Bible – Family Records – Births. Bible Records found in Civil War record file of Zachariah Mannin, son of Meridith and Rachel Fugate Mannin. Zachariah died of smallpox Jan. 7, 1864 at Knoxville, Tennessee. Meridith Mannin applied for Zachariah’s pension and received it. From http://boards.rootsweb.com/surnames.mannin/159.1.1/mb.ashx.

Endnotes:

[1] NOTE: The family should include both Thomas and Tubill, however, it appears that only one of the two is enumerated.

 

The 1830 Census and Burket Vincent

Census Sunday
By Don Taylor

Photo of Don Taylor with cat Nasi.Following families in the early census records is always difficult and when a census’s information is completely unexpected, it makes things really difficult. Such is the case concerning Burket Vincent and the 1830 Census.

Burket died about 1847 and the 1850 Census shows his (apparent) widow[i] and daughter living in Halifax County, North Carolina. Next door to the widow is his oldest (Known) son, John, John’s (apparent[ii]) wife and three children.

Going through the census records for Burket, I have found the following:

1840

The 1840 Census is very straight forward. Burket’s surname is Vinson in this Census, and most of his children appear to be enumerated.

  • Males – 60 thru 69: 1 – Presumed to be Burket Vincent
  • Males – 20 thru 29: 1 – Presumed to be either John or James, Age 23 or 22. (b. 1816 or 1817). John is not seen living next door, so this is most likely John, but it could be James.
  • Males – 15 thru 19: 1 – Presumed to be Burket (Jr.?), born about 1824.
  • Females – 50 thru 59: 1 Presumed to be Elizabeth (wife)
  • Females – 15 thru 19: 1 Presumed to be Nancy, age 15 (b. 1825).
  • Elisha would be 20; I assume she was elsewhere; likewise, 18-year-old Susan appears to be moved out by then.
  • William, who would be about 13 is not enumerated, I believe he passed before the 1830 Census.

1830

In the 1830 Census, all of the children seem incorrect. Burket and his wife seem to be there just fine. However, the children are NOT as I would expect. It seems that they are all 10 years too old. Certainly, it is possible the Census Taker got it very wrong, but I don’t think so.

What I see in the 1830 Census:

1830 Census – Burkett Vincent – Males
1830 Census – Burkett Vincent – Females

Males

  • Under 5          0          William Appears Missing.
  • 5-10                0          Burket Appears missing.
  • 10-15              0          John & James appear missing
  • 15-20              1          Unknown
  • 20-30              2         Unknown
  • 30-40              1          Unknown
  • 50-60              1          Presumed to be Burket b. 1770-1780 – Right Age.

Females

  • Under 5          0          Nancy appears Missing
  • 5-10                0          Susan & Elisia appear missing.
  • 10-15              1           Unknown
  • 15-20              1          Unknown
  • 20-30              1         Unknown
  • 40-50              1         Presumed to be Burket’s first wife.

For a while, I thought I might have the wrong family, the surname change between Vinson and Vincent occurred several times for this family line and maybe this wasn’t one of those times. However, a look at the neighbors during the 1830 Census found several of the same people are still neighbors in the 1840 Census, so I’m sure it is the right family unit. That and Burket is such an unusual name.

1820 Census

The 1820 Census[iii] shows the family as I would expect to see them based upon the 1830 Census results. 

Males:

  • under 10        2          Unknown
  • 26-45              1          Presumed to be Burket (1775-1795)
    This census entry indicates Burket’s birth to be between 1775-1780 (vs 1770-1780 that I had previously).

Females:

  • under 10        2          Two unknown females
  • 10-16              1          Unknown
  • Over 45          1          Unknown (Elizabeth should be 35)

To me, these census records suggest a first wife much closer in age to Burket. With her, it is possible that they had three daughters, and two sons all born before the 1820 Census. One of the daughters might be Elisia and the two sons are possibly John and James.

The 1830 Census only makes sense if Burket had a first wife who died sometime after 1830 and his new wife, Elizabeth, had Burket, Nancy, and Susan with a previous husband. This would also suggest that Burket and Elizabeth had no children together.

1810 Census

The 1810 Census supports my two wives theory. It shows:

  • Males: 26 to 45            Clearly Burket Born  1765-1784
  • Females Under 10       1 Unknown Female born 1800-1810 (This would be the same unknown female over 10 years old during the 1820 Census.)
  • Females 26 to 45         1 Appears to be his wife born 1765-1784

Hypotheses

I have the following hypotheses:

  1.             Burket Vincent (of Halifax County, NC) was born between 1775-1780.
  2.             Burket had two wives Unknown and Elizabeth.
  3.             With wife 1, Burket had 5 children, two males and three females none of whom are the names known.
  4.            Elizabeth had 7 children when she married Burket. They were John, James, Elisha, Susan, Nancy, Burket, and William. (None of those children appear to be in the 1830 Census but all appear to be enumerated in the 1840 Census.)

Conclusion

The biggest ramification of this hypothesis is that the father of John Vincent, my wife’s 2nd great-grandfather, may not be Burket Vincent as I’ve believed for many years. Rather, it would appear that John’s mother was an unknown woman who had John during a previous marriage.

Follow-up

  • Do a complete family unit study and determine if this hypothesis is correct.
  • Search for probate and land records for Burket and see if those records provide insight into the relationships.
  • I should further research Burket’s 2nd wife, Elizabeth, further and determine her first marriage.

Sources

  • “United States Census, 1840,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XHTJ-T71 : 24 August 2015), Burket Vinson, Halifax, North Carolina, United States; citing p. 2, NARA microfilm publication M704, (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 362; FHL microfilm 18,094.
  • “United States Census, 1830,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XH59-67P : 22 August 2017), Brkett Vincent, Halifax, North Carolina, United States; citing 321, NARA microfilm publication M19, (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 121; FHL microfilm 18,087.
  • “United States Census, 1820,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XHGS-FNW : accessed 18 September 2018), Perkit Vincent, Halifax, Halifax, North Carolina, United States; citing p. 168, NARA microfilm publication M33, (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 85; FHL microfilm 162,801.
  • “United States Census, 1810,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XHLM-2NW : accessed 22 September 2018), Burpet Vincent, Halifax, North Carolina, United States; citing p. 121, NARA microfilm publication M252 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 38; FHL microfilm 337,911.

Endnotes

[i] The 1850 Census does not indicate widows or widowers.

[ii] The 1850 Census does not indicate relationships.

[iii] Neighbors are undeterminable because there is an alphabetical arrangement of entries in the 1820 Census.